WHAT TO DO ABOUT NEUROPATHY?

READERS SUMMARY:

1. WHAT IS NEUROPATHY?
2. WHAT IS NEUROPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH?
3. HOW IS THIS CONDITION DIAGNOSED?
4. HOW MIGHT ONE CONSIDER TREATING THIS CONDITION?
5. WHAT ARE THE CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENTS? DO THEY EVEN WORK?

 

NERVE PAIN/NEUROPATHY

 

“Pain is temporary. It may last a minute, or an hour, or a day, or a year, but eventually it will subside and something else will take its place. If I quit, however, it lasts forever. That surrender, even the smallest act of giving up, stays with me. So when I feel like quitting, I ask myself, which would I rather live with?” 

 

 

I think this perspective, above,  is interesting because it allows one to cope when feeling pain but when it comes to chronic peripheral neuropathy that I see most commonly he is dead wrong. I don’t think there is anything that slowly destroys a human being more than chronic pain. I see quite a bit of chronic pain in my daily job and decided to write a quick blog about it because of the shear number of emails I have received to speak on this topic.

Neuropathy is a malfunctioning of a nerve or a group of nerves. It can be caused by many factors. Some of them are nutritional deficiency, drug toxicity, trauma, vascular damage, poisoning or disease states like diabetes. The one basic premise that is common to all causes is that there is a disruption of normal nerve impulse transmission from the damaged nerve and that information is sent to the central nervous system in the brain and spinal cord for further processing. This malformed messaged could in fact be perceived by the brain as a sensation associated with pain, numbness, or the muscle innervated by this nerve to be non functional. The most common cause in the USA is diabetic neuropathy. The second most common cause is trauma. This could be physical or iatrogenic.

Neuropathy is generally associated with three sensations.

1. Paraesthesia- which is numbness or tingling

2. Causalgia – burning sensation

3. Dyesthesia- which is an unpleasant burning crawling, itchy, sensation in a numbed or dulled area.

Some patients refer to it as real annoying pain that wont go away. The pain can range from minor to intense. In some cases the pain can begin with a non-painful stimuli touching the affected area. If the motor portion of the nerve is also involved movement maybe effected and muscle atrophy or shrinkage will result. Nerves that control autonomic functions like heart rate and blood pressure or gastric emptying can also be effected. When this occurs we generally see changes in tears, salivary flow, erections, urinary retention, respiratory trouble or palpitations.

Diagnosis:

Usually is made by history and physical exam. A MRI to rule out compressive or disc disease is often done.  Sometimes we revert to ordering ancillary testing like nerve conduction studies. Often times in tough cases to diagnose we need blood tests to rule out diabetes or mineral or vitamin deficiencies that can cause neuropathy. There are genetic causes too but they are generally rare.

Diabetic neuropathy:

Is a function of the severity of the diabetes and the duration of the disease. The older the patient the more severe the neuropathy seems to be due to reduction in autophagic repair as we get older. The severity is also tied to the HbA1c level, reduction of the HDL level and the elevation of the TG levels. Initially only 8-12% of newly minted diabetics have neuropathy but after 25 years of elevated glucose 60% of diabetics have some form of neuropathy.

How does neuropathy develop?

It begins with a circadian mismatch usually tied to light or the low frequency ELF range.  Both alter calcium homeostasis in cells.  But excessive EMF is not necessary to be the only cause.  Iodine deficiency is a big cause because it causes a loss of myelination of peripheral and central nervous system tissues.  A lack of iodine also means the person can not myelinate their nerves because they can not access the ketogenic pathway to myelinate nerves.  This has two major effects on nerves.  One it decreases the insulation of nerves and can cause a short circuit to develop.  The second is more interesting and more significant.  It would decrease the the DC current of nerve fibers that has been found experimentally to be tied to tissue regeneration in mammals.

Early humans found them selves in an environment loaded with iodine, DHA, and seawater.  Today’s modern humans do not.

Sufficient dietary iodine is crucial for proper ketogenesis in our nerves,  liver and in our brain.  Ketogenesis is critical for myelination of all nerves in humans.  These are just three of many tissues that diabetics have massive trouble with.  When iodine is low,  estrogen levels tend to be higher in both sexes.  This also is associated with elevated SHBG on testing.

Estrogen also blocks the absorption of iodine from the human gut.  So any cause of leaky gut can also be an etiology for neuropathy even in a non diabetic.  I see this many times a week when some one comes in with a normal MRI and classic radicular pain they think is from compression or from a disc.  This is why women have higher rates of neuropathy, MS,  and hypothyroidism than men.  It is also why they have less myelin than men in adulthood naturally.  Myelination is a proxy regeneration because of the loss of the regenerative DC current below the myelin level and outside the axon of nerve cells.

You might be shocked to learn that artificial blue light in your environment destroys iodine absorption due to poor melatonin signaling in the brain.  When iodine is low in nerves over time it causes lower levels of vitamin D and vitamin K2 and atherosclerosis usually develops in the blood vessels that feed the vascular supply to nerves.   You  might be shocked to learn loss of melatonin signaling in the brain and in nerves also increases estrogen levels and,  this in turn,  further lowers iodine absorption from the gut in both sexes to cause peripheral neuropathy.  This is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy I see in my medical clinic.

As the disease progresses,  blood flow to the nerves decreases because of the development of atherosclerosis from a chronic low vitamin D, vitamin K2 level and iodine. The patients also tend to be dehydrated and have higher BUN/creatine ratio’s as well.  This limits the amount of oxygen and nutrients to the nerves cells. This damage occurs at the vasa nervora. Nerves are fundamentally different in how they transport glucose than other cells in the body.

Membranes of nerves have insulin independent glucose transport mechanisms. They rely on the polyol pathway. This pathway uses polyhydroxyl alcohols. This pathway is the one responsible for many eye diseases like macular degeneration and optic neuritis.  These diseases all affect the ability of the eye to absorb electromagnetic signals from sunlight to send to the retina and pineal gland.

Diabetics have constant elevated blood glucose and this allows nerves to absorb the glucose at a higher rate. That glucose is chemically altered to sorbitol by the polyol pathway by an enzyme called aldose reductase. This sugar alcohol is not used by the cell for ATP so it builds up and causes cellular stress to develop. It also limits the amount of ATP a nerve can make and nerves use massive amounts of ATP to transmit messages. When ATP is limited it limits the ability for nerve to use water chemistry for energy transfers.  This is why diabetics have serious problems with wound healing and with tissue regeneration.  The lack of energy increases overall cellular stress and damages the nerve cells eventually through the action of circadian clock genes on the photoentrainment pigment called melanopsin.

The main effect of this build up of sorbitol is a decrease in a nutrient called myo- inositol. Myo-inositol is responsible for normal nerve conduction to take place. Inositol is a B vitamin compound. The sorbitol causes build up of free radicals, namely peroxides, hydroxyl,  and nitric oxide free radicals. In diabetics or in injured nerves,  it concentrates these free radicals to make a positive feedback loop and worsen nerve function or pain as time goes on. This in turn depletes nerve cells of taurine. (Hansen 2000) Studies done by Terada et al., in 1998 suggested that there was a close relationship between the unregulated polyol pathway and the depletion of carnitine in the mitochondria that leads to neuropathy.  A “carnitine like” analog called R alpha lipoic acid is thought to balance this depletion and is used as a treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy today.   It is not as effective as replacing dietary iodine sources in my experience.  I also use high dose resveratrol because it blocks the production of nitric oxide in nerves and increases mitochondrial efficiency,  even in the face of an unregulated polyol pathway.   Resveratrol has massive benefits for diabetics.  The dose I like to use in some cases is 500 mgs per day to 10,000 mgs a day based upon the patient’s symptoms and budget. Resveratrol is not cheap, but I believe it is one of the best treatments we have today that is completely under utilized by my profession. I also don’t advocate the use of any sugar alcohols in the diet because this can worsen the neuropathy from any cause.  When someone has neuropathy I will immediately tell them to use cold, the Epi-paleo Rx, and avoid non native EMF from their cell phones and from any blue light emitting diode in their environment. The sugar alcohols advocate by many in the low carb community  should also be avoided like the plague.  I find it disconcerting that many low carb bloggers have sponsors with these chemicals in them.  They are not good for people with neuropathy.

Treatment Considerations you must consider ASAP:

1. Strict Low carb Epi-paleolithic diet is instituted to lower HbA1c and PUFA content in nerve cell membranes. My suggestion is the read The Epi-paleo Rx book, to see precisely why a ketotic approach is best.

The reversal effect of the diet is not immediate because the lack of fat and iodine is chronic. In my experience, it takes 18-36 months. Interestingly, the Epi paleo Rx is quite high in carnosine. Recently, carnosine elevation has shown to increase telomere length and to directly combat glycation from high blood sugars and high PUFA diets. No one is quite sure yet the exact mechanism but since the Epi-paleo Rx contains massive amounts of carnosine it helps tremendously in treatment of this difficult combination. Another point about diet that must be made: The current American Diabetic Association (ADA) diet is one that favors excessive carbohydrate intake which has a very low iodine content.  Also many modern diets call for low sodium, and this further decreases iodine intake. Go the the American Diabetic Association website and look at it.  It is appalling in my view as a physician, given what we know today about nerve regeneration.

Since America is a country of frying chefs, be very careful of frying any carbohydrates. Think french fries or funnel cakes! Carbohydrates subjected to frying in PUFA oils form the chemical acrylamide, and this compound is strongly linked to the development of peripheral neuropathy as well. Changing your diet to an Epi-paleo Rx and controlling glucose and PUFA intake is the most important and best way to reverse neuropathy.  This must be done with a heavy intake of reverse osmosis or spring water daily.

2. Use of iodine and iodide supplements, R alpha lipoic acid, Resveratrol, PQQ, Magnesium and CoEnzyme Q 10 to decrease cellular stress.

3. Fatty acid balance to reduce peroxide generation. The goal is to decrease omega 6 fats and increase omega 3 fats and also increase gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Borage oil has copious amounts of GLA. So does black currant oil and evening primrose oil. These oils tend to increase blood flow in the vasa nervora to decrease the cellular stress.

4. Very liberal replacement of B complex vitamins especially B1 and B12. Optimization of vitamin D and E levels due to their immune modulating and antioxidant effects in nerves. Use of inositol is also a treatment choice.

5. Zinc and Magnesium replacement.   This only works if you live in a low EMF environment.  Zn with Mg are two of the most common mineral deficiencies in neuropathic pain due to the unregulated polyol pathway. Don’t go crazy with zinc supplementation because it can cause a secondary copper metabolic problem but I can not emphasize enough if you are a diabetic you must supplement with zinc, but only when your inflammation is first controlled with the Epi-paleo Rx.  It helps wound healing out tremendously. In fact, in my surgical patients who are diabetic I usually have them on three key supplements for wound healing pre op and post op. Those are magnesium, zinc, and vitamin K2. The doses vary based upon the disease severity they have and the type of surgery I am planning.

6. Supplementation with NAC and Acetyl- L- Carnitine. NAC is a precursor for glutathione to rid the nerve of all the free radicals produced by the polyol pathway. The carnitine is replaced because it is depleted by the polyol pathway. Taurine replacement can also be done,  but has never been shown to be effective in trials. (Franconi et al 1995.) I rarely have use taurine myself because of the trial data.  I find iodine and water are far better choice for peripheral neuropathy of any cause.

7. Optimization of thyroid hormone function is critical. Most diabetics have high cortisol and altered leptin signaling. If you have not read my leptin prescription post I would suggest a peak at it now. This predicts that their thyroid function will be altered or completely shut down physiologically as shown in any textbook of physiology or biochemistry. This has huge implications for the nerve fiber. In order to a neuron to work, it first must be excitable to a stimulus. This excitability requires sufficient amounts of T3. Remember from my leptin series that leptin resistance cause a spike in production of reverse T3. Reverse T3 is a DIRECT INHIBITOR of T3! This means that no matter how good your T3 level is reverse T3 inactivates it directly. So one can see how devastating LR is to nerve function. Generally, the best replacement of T3 in these cases is Cytomel, which contains peripherally active T3.  You can also use over the counter T2 supplements if your doctor will not Rx meds for you.

8. Consider the use of acupuncture. In severe cases that were unresponsive to the above I have seen decent successes with this alternative treatment.  The effect however takes 48-106 hours to begin.

9. Talk to your pain physician about placing peripheral nerve stimulators on the effected nerve to increase its blood flow by increasing signal transduction. This can work but I only recommend it in cases where nothing else works.  This is rare unless the patient is completely non compliant with the above advice.

Conventional Medical treatment you likely will get today in an office:

1. Neurotin or other antiepileptic medicines, a blood thinner to decrease platlet clumping and decrease blood viscosity to increase flow, and one or several antidepressants for the chronic pain that walks hand and hand with this condition. The side effects really limit their effectiveness. Sleepiness and weight gain and a feeling like your drunk or hungover are common ones I hear.

2. Pain medications that will lead to secondary effects over time. Addiction and chronic pain development due to hyper-excitability of satellite astrocytes in the CNS. I will post a future blog about what opiates to to chronic pain and the how the affect a leaky gut. Safe to say these drugs do little and they cause many secondary problems that are often harder to deal with than the nerve pain they are supposed to treat.

CITES:

Goldberg RJ, Katz J. 2007. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain 129(1-2):210-23.

Comments

  1. Question for ya Doc!

    Great article by the way..as always. But I am wondering if I am reading between the lines correctly; that a person, say a diabetic, most likely overweight, that does not change their diet, get off the SAD, would be wasting their money if they are taking copious amounts of the recomended vitamins? Possible counter productive, or of little help due to the overall issues with glucose and the polyol pathway.

    Thanks!

  2. @Dave…..great question. I will answer it tactlessly. If you continue to glycate your body taking my advice here is akin to pissing in the lake to raise its level.

  3. Are there any parallels between diabetic neuropathy and hearing loss?

    I just spent a week with my 85 year old mother and if there is one thing she could pick to have "fixed" because of the huge impact on her life, is the loss of hearing.

    Will the same treatment approach help?

  4. Hearing loss comes in two types…..sensory neural and bone conductive. Sensory neural loss can be a bit like neuropathy but your mom would need to see an ENT to conduct a simple tuning fork test to determine which one she suffers from. Bone conductive loss is more common as we age.

  5. Jack, just wondering, what are some other ways besides a basic paleo diet that I can help my liver function? NAC? Tumeric? I know good gut health is key, but it seems like chicken & the egg where both are needed.

    • Bill…..its clear you have not read the rest of my blogs……the secret sauce for leaky gut is there. Go back to the main page click on the brain gut axis…..and then you can send me a bottle of wine when you see the juice i'm giving you for free.

  6. Nice nice. Clinical nutrition is the definitely under-utilized.

    How does vitamin B12 tie into neuropathy? It seems to be vital for repairing a brain.

    Also, what do you think of glutathione shots for neuropathy, or in general?

  7. I started the LR a week ago Monday. I'm a 43yo female that had the beginning of Neuropathy in 2009 (that's when a nerve test discovered it). I also have Hypothyroidism, Insulin Resistance, obese, insomnia and bipolar. I just had an Hysterectomy on July 27,2011.

    My mother is diabetic with severe Peripheral Neuropathy.

    I can't tell you how much I appreciate your work here! I had just given up hope of getting for a reasonable weight and stopping the chronic pain from my SI Joint and low back! I now have hope again!!!

  8. Grammasmitty says:

    I am on information overload with all the articles you've posted! But I am beginning to absorb. Sure appreciate your personal responses and fantastic advice!

    Question, what do you think of Astaxanthin?

  9. @Stabby Memorize & repeat these words: Wikipedia is my friend. Learn how to use your computer to find answers yourself instead of making work for other people.

    "Vitamin B-12 is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain *AND NERVOUS SYSTEM*, and for the formation of blood. It is one of the eight B vitamins. It is normally involved in the metabolism of *every* cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause *severe and IRREVERSIBLE damage*, especially to the brain and nervous system."

  10. Great article, you seem very knowledgeable about nutrition for neuropathy, which is why I am totally confused why you never mention using benfotiamine ? Good research and many people have had complete relief just using benfotiamine by itself and has been around for 10 years.

  11. i have parkinson's FXTAS. parents of autistic child can get it (which I am) but also i have had uncontrollable sweet cravings all my life.

    i'm doing gaps now. it's very low carb. and i'm following the anti candida diet.

    i need to think it's not too late to help myself.

    i have read your stuff but it's way above my head.

    i think u say: q10 and b vitamins for neurological diseases. is that right?

  12. Julie Mccarthy says:

    Hi Doc,

    Wondering if you ever posted a blog on the affect of opiates on leaky gut. I took many pain meds for years before, during and after spinal surgeries. I don't take them now but they recently prescribed Neurotin again because I still have nerve pain and burning creepy crawlies–does Neurotin affect leaky gut? Also, I have the classic physique of someone with Cushings and had several shots of cortisone in my time–that, with the stress of the surgeries and losing my job, I think my cortisol levels may be through the roof. Have you had experience with patients that have experienced these things and were able to improve their health? How did they do it? I have changed my diet to Paleo- should I address leaky gut first and then do the leptin reset? I have so many questions…

  13. So sorbitol laden zinc lozenges is NOT the way to fight a cold, unless you want to fry your nerves?

  14. Dr, K,

    What about peripheral numbness that comes on while doing the L Rx? I ask because I seem to get it in my toes whenever I start cranking down the carbs – whether it was years ago on Zone or going with a LC version of Paleo/Primal. Fasting glucose has been consistently in 90's and HBA1c has never tripped the T2D level. Could this just be a potassium/calcium/magnesium issue?

  15. is it possible for this condition to only occur on the left side of the body? (arm and leg) and when i go to my doctor what tests should i ask them to run? Thank you so much for all your information…..it is the missing piece to the puzzle for me

  16. reversible? or does the concrete stay on the granite? :( And I suppose I might as well give up thinking the fuzzy thinking of perimenopause is going to lift on the other side of the change

    • @cgk depends upon how much damage. I have several neuropathy reversals………its pretty cool too because the ones that occurred happened in people I gave little hope too. So now I am a lot more aggressive. I learned something from these patients.

  17. I don't have PN but, rather, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. no pain but have lost much feeling in toes and feet, have drop foot, have lots of muscle atrophy in legs (and yet I still surf!). doctors call it idiopathic and can't help. it is progressing fairly quickly. i did a round of IVIG, 10 treatments, with no effect. anyway … would your RX for PN be equally applicable for CIDP? thanks!

    • @Linter CIDP is a huge breakdown of immunity caused by inflammation and hormonal breakdown. It is usually associated with estrogen dominance and a SEVERE loss of progesterone that decreases Brain derived Nerve growth factor…….and NERVE GROWTH FACTOR!!!! this also destroys vitamin D status. I bet your DHEA level is horrible to because it means the process of autophagy is broken in you. It means your sleep is bad and you cant make BDNF and NGF so the inflammation is destroying your nerves. You need to eat a very ketogenic paleolithic diet with lots of coconut oil, fish, seafood, and lots of 99% chocolate. I also think you need to get your hormones checked and you will see every one I mentioned here is abnormal. Then you will realize that I know something you and your doc do not. Then you can fix them. You need to take control of your health…….medicine cant because they do not realize that this disease is an autoimmune disease cause by gut inflammation by a bad diet. You really need to listen to my talk today at http://www.paleosummit.com. It is free all day today

  18. Jack: thanks for the speedy response. as it happens, i'm going to see my neurologist tomorrow for follow up to the IVIG treatment. could you tell me specifically what tests i might ask him to order, to see if certain of my levels are as off as you think they might be? and i will listen to your talk!

  19. btw / you said: "You need to eat a very ketogenic paleolithic diet with lots of coconut oil, fish, seafood, and lots of 99% chocolate." Are there any alternatives to fish / seafood? I am 57 years old and have eaten fish probably less than 12 times in my life. Seriously. Everything about it sickens me. So … like I said … alternatives?

    • @Linter……alternative? sure. Those lead to mediocre. You must eat optimal to get optimal. Read the HOLY TRINITY STAT. You need to improve your thinking now.

  20. while i work on that, more immediately pressing is my visit w/ the neuro tomorrow. should i ask him to order tests and if so what tests?

    • @Linter you want the truth? You're going no where with them. You must do it yourself. You can ask them to do them……but I already know what you'll hear. Plus none of them would know what to do with the labs. That is another problem

  21. well, okay, i'm left to my own devices once again. have you written about how to "do it on your own"? if not, might you do so in the near future? btw/ my doctors will do any labs i ask them to do or, at least, with only a little balking. as to interpreting the results … that's another story.

  22. Well, in any event, I did a cortisol saliva test two years ago:

    morning: 4.7

    noon: 1.7

    evening: 2.1

    night: .5

    at that time, all were within range, except the evening, and it was high.

    My CIDP was bad then, but not as bad as it has become in the last year. Even so, I'd have thought the test would say something about what's going on and it really didn't, from what I can see. Lab was ZRT.

    • @linter get a HS CRP, progesterone DHEA and Vit D level back with free and total Testosterone witha full thyroid panel………including thyroid antibodies……That will cover all you need for a hack. I bet your doc shits the bed…….he wont know what to do……with the results you can head to MDA post them and we will hack you. I have a minion of soldiers over there who are helping take mediocre people and making them optimal…….they are nothing short of amazing.

  23. Thanks. Will do.

  24. Hi Doc,

    I am an MD myself (I write from Sydney, Australia) and today I have accepted to help a mother of one of my daughter's classmates at childcare. She has a diagnosis of motor neurone disease. Obviously progressing despite treatment. I am applying the autoimmune Paleo approach, and asking for bloods as baseline (CBC, Liver function, renal function, electrolytes, CRP, Lipid profile, Vit D, Vit K2, Magnesium, Zinc, Selenium, Phosphate, Thyroid function + T3).

    She eats the typical Western Diet, and is high in processed soy products. All this will change (my wife has volunteered to cook for her lunch and has recruited another mother for dinners.) Under my supervision.

    Do you have any recommendations on how to begin healing the gut (should I start with a GAPS approach or just begin with Paleo?), amounts of coconut oil, supplements and any other blood samples?

    I really need your help on this one please.

    Also, I am a big fan, and would like it very much to meet you at AHS 2012.

    All the best with the book… (I'll wait patiently)

    In the mean time will start with recommendations from this blog post, since is the closest to this mom's condition.

    Hope to hear from you soon.

    Regards,

    JDT

  25. Thanks!

    Is there a way that I can report progress / ask questions?

  26. wally courie says:

    i was treated by Aaron Vinik at the Eastern Virginia Medical University for diabetic neuropathy. he put me on topamax. i was led to believe it remyelinates the nerve sheathes. he explained to me that most diabetic neuropathy is small fiber neuropathy.

    the testing there was deep. where most people doctors just touch your foot w/ a single nylon filament, the tech there opens up a whole suitcase of different sizes. and u close your eyes so u can’t see it or anticipate the touch. is it A or B? that type of stuff. also tested for cold, pressure, heat, autonomic system damage based on the heart rate variability, i guess. he diagnosed me w/ severe diabetic small fiber neuropathy.

    when diagnosed diabetic my A1C was 11% and i had electric type shocks in my hands & feet.

    the treatment worked. i also self medicated w/ fat soluble vitamin A- benfotiamine. the alpha-lipoic acid is good stuff. the r form is the optically active. life extension sells it.

    i still take topamax.

  27. wally courie says:

    correction: benfotiamine is fat soluble thiamine which is Vitamin B1. i have to keep my A’s & B’s straight!

  28. wally courie says:

    the last articles by Dr. Vinik on topamax and neuropathy were circa 2003. But here is a more recent one (2010):

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047986/
    “Topiramate improves neurovascular function, epidermal nerve fiber morphology, and metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”

    ….
    “Conclusion

    This study is the first to demonstrate that it is possible to induce skin intraepidermal nerve fiber regeneration accompanied by enhancement of neurovascular function, translating into improved symptoms as well as sensory nerve function. The simultaneous improvement of selective metabolic indices may play a role in this effect, but this remains to be determined.”

    But, somehow, i believe paleo and CT would have got me there quicker, if i had known about it back then.

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  1. [...] is why cancer patients have higher risks for developing multiple neolithic diseases as they age. Peripheral neuropathy and pain is one such example. Those with low HDL levels or frank liver disease tend to make the [...]

  2. [...] vitamin. Glutathione is the bodies major antioxidant and it acts to protect neurons under assault. Alpha lipoid acid and PQQ have major beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in nerve cells and improve energy [...]

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