Continuing on in the Central leptin series we will resume in Orlando, Florida. In Orlando, Dr. Myers, went on to say, "In addition to examining the molecular details and importance of specific LRb signals, we are dissecting the regulation and function of individual populations of LRb-expressing neurons and examining the role of leptin in the development of neural circuits. By understanding the totality of leptin action in this way we hope to decipher the mechanisms by which leptin regulates the predisposition to diabetes and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome." This statement carries huge implications. He has found that not only is leptin neurons somatotopically organized in the brain, but the leptin receptor also appears to be somatotopically organized into certain regions that wire and select certain neurons in the brain that modulate all parts of the obesity physiologic response. It also appears that this organization is different in men and women at the parvo-cellular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Certain parts of the receptor control total body glycemic control, others body weight and size, and others power the para-mammillary neurons to directly control fecundity, placental growth and oocyte maturation. The receptor even codes for gender differences! Men and women really are from Mars and Venus when it comes to obesity and fat deposition, and this explains why the endocrine response is different in men and women. We have known men and women have different leptin levels as adults but did not know how or why this happens. Now we do. We now are beginning to understand why it is the case as well. It helps explain why we see can see PCOS and stubborn weight gain together and why fat is distributed differently in both sexes.